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The film's score and soundtrack are composed by A. Rahman , while cinematography was handled by Jeeva. The film focuses on an ex-freedom fighter turned vigilante bent on rooting out corruption, and his son, who is at the other end of the spectrum by facilitating corrupt practices leading to some unfortunate events.
He is well trained in Varma kalai , an ancient lethal martial art used for close quarters combat Choreographed by Aasan R.
The film opened to critical acclaim on the way to becoming a commercial blockbuster in the Tamil film industry.
Indian was selected by India as its entry for the Best Foreign Language Film for the Academy Awards in , but was not nominated.
It was the highest-grossing Tamil film upon its release, beating the collections of Baashha , until surpassed by Padayappa three years later.
The film's basic plot has resemblance to the Sivaji Ganesan and Kamal Haasan starring Tamil film Naam Pirandha Mann. A series of murders take place in Avadi , Chennai , in the same pattern; stabbing by a knife.
Each time the victim is paralysed before being killed. Police, led by IPS officer Krishnaswamy, suspect several people and they narrow down the killer by his age, which should be more than 70 years based on his the writing style on a letter left behind by the killer while murdering his recent victim, an officer in the government treasury.
Chandra Bose alias Chandru is a small-time broker stationed outside the Regional Transport Office at Chennai, who aids people in greasing the right officials inside the RTO for getting permits and licenses.
His assistant Subbaiah, and Paneerselvam, an RTO official, are engaged in regular tiffs while Aishwarya, Chandru's love interest and an avid animal rights activist, also battles it out with Sapna, a medical student and the daughter of an RTO official.
Chandru hobnobs with Sapna and her family to secure a job as a brake inspector at the RTO. Aishwarya is irked by the fact that Sapna as well as her mother are exploiting Chandru's situation, getting him to do grocery shopping, laundry, and almost every household chore.
It is soon revealed that Chandru is none other than Senapathy's son. They both had parted ways due to Senapathy's excessive insistence on honesty and righteousness, which Chandru considers to be dead and worthless.
Meanwhile, Krishnaswamy manages to trace his way to Senapathy's house. When he tries to arrest Senapathy, he and his wife Amirthavalli, a puppeteer, escape with his expertise in Varma kalai.
Senapathy then goes on to commit a murder in front of television audiences by killing a corrupt doctor, who refused to treat Senapathy's daughter Kasturi, who was suffering from third degree burns , because he insisted on a bribe which Senapathy refused, thus killing her.
Public support surges for Senapathy as he exposes so many corrupt people. Senapathy does not do his son any favours either. Chandru, who managed to bribe his way to a brake inspector job, takes a bribe and gives a safety certificate to a bus with faulty brakes, which eventually kills 40 school children it is carrying, plus the driver operating it.
But, Chandru tries to put the blame on the bus driver for drunk driving and manages to bribe a police officer and a doctor on the same.
Senapathy is bent on giving Chandru the same punishment as he gives others, i. Despite pleas from Amirthvalli and Aishwarya to spare Chandru's life, Senapathy heads for the airport where Chandru is attempting to flee to Mumbai.
A chase then culminates at the airport, where Senapathy kills Chandru and apparently dies in an explosion involving an aeroplane. However, Krishnaswamy, on investigsting discovers that Senapathy escaped moments before the jeep exploded.
The epilogue shows Senapathy calling Krishnaswamy from a foreign land, indicating that he will be back when the need for him would arise.
In June , producer A. Rathnam signed on Shankar , who had directed two blockbusters in Gentleman and Kaadhalan , to make a new venture featuring leading actor Kamal Haasan in the lead role.
The film was reported to be loosely based on the life of prominent Indian freedom fighter , Subhas Chandra Bose.
The producers signed on Raadhika to play the pair of the older Kamal Haasan in the film, but her television commitments meant that she was unable to sign a contract.
Urvashi 's sister subsequently replaced her, only for Shankar to throw her out for missing a day's schedule to attend her wedding. The role was finally handed to Sukanya , who had previously appeared alongside Kamal Haasan in Mahanadhi.
Nasser was chosen to portray an important character in the film; however, as he was busy with other films he could not accept the offer instead he provided voice for Nedumudi Venu.
Then Shankar hired Malayalam famous character artist Nadimudu Venu to play the role. The producers engaged Hollywood make-up artistes Michael Westmore and Michael Jones to work on the designs for the senior Kamal Haasan's and Sukanya's look in the film.
For production work, Shankar visited Las Vegas to learn about new technology and purchased cameras for the production. Furthermore, the director visited Australia alongside cinematographer Jeeva and music director A.
Rahman to location hunt and to compose tunes. A song for the film was shot at Prasad Studios featuring Kamal Haasan and Urmila Matondkar alongside 70 Bombay models.
Another duet between Kamal Haasan and Manisha Koirala was shot near the Sydney Opera House in Sydney and Canberra for fifteen days.
Venky had to remove blemishes on the film reel of Bose provided by the Film Division's archive before merging Kamal Haasan on to the shot to make it appear that the pair were marching in tandem.
Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. In the past, most Bollywood films could make money; now, fewer do.
Most Bollywood producers make money, however, recouping their investments from many sources of revenue including the sale of ancillary rights.
There are increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood is slowly being noticed.
As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films. In , Bollywood sold 3.
A number of Indian artists hand-painted movie billboards and posters. Husain painted film posters early in his career; human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material.
Old hand-painted posters, once considered ephemera , are collectible folk art. Releasing film music, or music videos, before a film's release may be considered a form of advertising.
A popular tune is believed to help attract audiences. Most bigger-budget films have a websites on which audiences can view trailers, stills and information on the story, cast, and crew.
Product placement , used in Hollywood, is also common in Bollywood. Bollywood's increasing use of international settings such as Switzerland, London, Paris, New York, Mexico, Brazil and Singapore does not necessarily represent the people and cultures of those locales.
Contrary to these spaces and geographies being filmed as they are, they are actually Indianised by adding Bollywood actors and Hindi speaking extras to them.
While immersing in Bollywood films, viewers get to see their local experiences duplicated in different locations around the world.
According to Shakuntala Rao, "Media representation can depict India's shifting relation with the world economy, but must retain its 'Indianness' in moments of dynamic hybridity";  "Indianness" cultural identity poses a problem with Bollywood's popularity among varied diaspora audiences, but gives its domestic audience a sense of uniqueness from other immigrant groups.
The Filmfare Awards are some of the most prominent awards given to Hindi films in India. Modeled on the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences ' poll-based merit format, individuals may vote in separate categories.
A dual voting system was developed in The National Film Awards were also introduced in The Indian government has sponsored the awards, given by its Directorate of Film Festivals DFF , since The awards are made at an annual ceremony presided over by the president of India.
Unlike the Filmfare Awards, which are chosen by the public and a committee of experts, the National Film Awards are decided by a government panel.
Other awards ceremonies for Hindi films in India are the Screen Awards begun in and the Stardust Awards , which began in The International Indian Film Academy Awards begun in and the Zee Cine Awards , begun in , are held abroad in a different country each year.
In addition to their popularity among the Indian diaspora from Nigeria and Senegal to Egypt and Russia , generations of non-Indians have grown up with Bollywood.
Bollywood films are also popular in Pakistan , Bangladesh , and Nepal , where Hindustani is widely understood. Many Pakistanis understand Hindi, due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu.
Exceptions to the ban were made for a few films, such as the colorized re-release of Mughal-e-Azam and Taj Mahal in Early in , the Pakistani government permitted the import of 16 films.
Although it is opposed by nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry, it is embraced by cinema owners who are making a profit after years of low receipts.
The most popular actress is Madhuri Dixit ;  at India-Pakistan cricket matches during the s, Pakistani fans chanted " Madhuri dedo, Kashmir lelo!
The films are also popular in Afghanistan due to its proximity to the Indian subcontinent and their cultural similarities, particularly in music.
Popular actors include Shah Rukh Khan, Ajay Devgan , Sunny Deol , Aishwarya Rai , Preity Zinta , and Madhuri Dixit. Bollywood films are popular in Southeast Asia , particularly in maritime Southeast Asia.
The three Khans are very popular in the Malay world , including Indonesia , Malaysia , and Singapore.
The films are also fairly popular in Thailand. India has cultural ties with Indonesia, and Bollywood films were introduced to the country at the end of World War II in The "angry young man" films of Amitabh Bachchan and Salim—Javed were popular during the s and s before Bollywood's popularity began gradually declining in the s and s.
It experienced an Indonesian revival with the release of Shah Rukh Khan's Kuch Kuch Hota Hai in , which was a bigger box-office success in the country than Titanic Bollywood has had a strong presence in Indonesia since then, particularly Shah Rukh Khan films such as Mohabbatein , Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham Mil Gaya all , and Veer-Zaara Some Bollywood films have been widely appreciated in China , Japan , and South Korea.
Several Hindi films have been commercially successful in Japan, including Mehboob Khan 's Aan , starring Dilip Kumar and Aziz Mirza 's Raju Ban Gaya Gentleman , starring Shah Rukh Khan.
The latter sparked a two-year boom in Indian films after its release,  with Dil Se.. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani , Awaara , and Do Bigha Zamin were successful in China during the s and s, and remain popular with their original audience.
Few Indian films were commercially successful in the country during the s and s, among them Tahir Hussain 's Caravan , Noorie and Disco Dancer.
Rahman to score his Warriors of Heaven and Earth When 3 Idiots was released in China, China was the world's 15th-largest film market partly due to its widespread pirate DVD distribution at the time.
The pirate market introduced the film to Chinese audiences, however, and it became a cult hit. According to the Douban film-review site, 3 Idiots is China's 12th-most-popular film of all time; only one domestic Chinese film Farewell My Concubine ranks higher, and Aamir Khan acquired a large Chinese fan base as a result.
Although Bollywood is less successful on some Pacific islands such as New Guinea , it ranks second to Hollywood in Fiji with its large Indian minority , Australia and New Zealand.
Yash Raj Films ' Salaam Namaste , the first Indian film shot entirely in Australia, was the most successful Bollywood film of in that country.
India , and Singh Is Kinng Bollywood films are popular in the former Soviet Union Russia , Eastern Europe , and Central Asia ,  and have been dubbed into Russian.
Indian films were more popular in the Soviet Union than Hollywood films   and, sometimes, domestic Soviet films. According to diplomat Ashok Sharma, who served in the Commonwealth of Independent States ,.
The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood and other Western cinema centers were banned in the Soviet Union.
As there was no means of other cheap entertainment, the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political.
In addition, the Soviet Union was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. The films from India, which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule, were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses.
The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union.
The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values, which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union.
After the collapse of the Soviet film-distribution system, Hollywood filled the void in the Russian film market and Bollywood's market share shrank.
In Poland , Shah Rukh Khan has a large following. He was introduced to Polish audiences with the release of Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham Bollywood films are often covered in Gazeta Wyborcza , formerly Poland's largest newspaper.
The upcoming movie Squad , is the first Indian film to be shot in Belarus. A majority of the film was shot at Belarusfilm studios, in Minsk.
Hindi films have become popular in Arab countries ,  and imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic when they are released.
Bollywood has progressed in Israel since the early s, with channels dedicated to Indian films on cable television;  MBC Bollywood and Zee Aflam show Hindi movies and serials.
In Egypt, Bollywood films were popular during the s and s. In , however, they were restricted to a handful of films by the Egyptian government.
Bollywood movies are regularly screened in Dubai cinemas, and Bollywood is becoming popular in Turkey; Barfi! Bollywood films are not influential in most of South America, although its culture and dance is recognised.
Due to significant South Asian diaspora communities in Suriname  and Guyana , however, Hindi-language movies are popular. Hindi films were originally distributed to some parts of Africa by Lebanese businessmen, and Mother India continued to be screened in Nigeria decades after its release.
Indian movies have influenced Hausa clothing, songs have been covered by Hausa singers, and stories have influenced Nigerian novelists. Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Nigeria's Northern Region , and posters of Indian films hang on the walls of tailoring shops and mechanics' garages.
Unlike Europe and North America, where Indian films cater to the expatriate marke, Bollywood films became popular in West Africa despite the lack of a significant Indian audience.
One possible explanation is cultural similarity: the wearing of turbans, animals in markets; porters carrying large bundles, and traditional wedding celebrations.
Within Muslim culture, Indian movies were said to show "respect" toward women; Hollywood movies were seen as having "no shame". In Indian movies, women are modestly dressed; men and women rarely kiss and there is no nudity , so the films are said to "have culture" which Hollywood lacks.
The latter "don't base themselves on the problems of the people"; Indian films are based on socialist values and the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism.
Indian movies permitted a new youth culture without "becoming Western. In South Africa , film imports from India were watched by black and Indian audiences.
Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav was filmed in South Africa. Bollywood, however, seems to be diminishing in popularity in Africa.
New Bollywood films are more sexually explicit and violent. Nigerian viewers observed that older films from the s and s had more culture and were less Westernised.
Kishore Kumar and Amitabh Bachchan have been popular in Egypt and Somalia. The first Indian film to be released in the Western world and receive mainstream attention was Aan , directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Dilip Kumar and Nimmi.
It was subtitled in 17 languages and released in 28 countries,  including the United Kingdom ,  the United States , and France. Many Bollywood films have been commercially successful in the United Kingdom.
The most successful Indian actor at the British box office has been Shah Rukh Khan , whose popularity in British Asian communities played a key role in introducing Bollywood to the UK  with films such as Darr ,  Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge ,  and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai Bollywood is also appreciated in France, Germany , the Netherlands ,  and Scandinavia.
Bollywood films are dubbed in German and shown regularly on the German television channel RTL II. The most recognised Indian actor in Germany is Shah Rukh Khan, who has had box-office success in the country with films such as Don 2  and Om Shanti Om Bollywood has experienced revenue growth in Canada and the United States, particularly in the South Asian communities of large cities such as Toronto , Chicago, and New York City.
Films such as The Guru and Marigold: An Adventure in India attempted to popularise Bollywood for Hollywood. Pressured by rushed production schedules and small budgets, some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to plagiarise.
Before the s, plagiarism occurred with impunity. Copyright enforcement was lax in India, and few actors or directors saw an official contract.
Audiences may not have been aware of plagiarism, since many in India were unfamiliar with foreign films and music. A commonly-reported justification for plagiarism in Bollywood is that cautious producers want to remake popular Hollywood films in an Indian context.
Although screenwriters generally produce original scripts, many are rejected due to uncertainty about whether a film will be successful.
Copying is endemic everywhere in India. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. We want their films, their cars, their planes, their Diet Cokes and also their attitude.
The American way of life is creeping into our culture. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere". Although very few cases of film-copyright violations have been taken to court because of a slow legal process,  the makers of Partner and Zinda were targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films: Hitch and Oldboy.
Films to court over the latter's forthcoming Banda Yeh Bindaas Hai , which Fox alleged was an illegal remake of My Cousin Vinny. The Pakistani Qawwali musician Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan had a big impact on Bollywood music, inspiring numerous Indian musicians working in Bollywood, especially during the s.
However, there were many instances of Indian music directors plagiarising Khan's music to produce hit filmi songs. He should at least respect my religious songs.
His song, "Tama", inspired two Bollywood songs : Bappi Lahiri 's "Tamma Tamma" in Thanedaar and "Jumma Chumma" in Laxmikant—Pyarelal 's soundtrack for Hum From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the Hindi film industry. For the entire film culture of India, see Cinema of India. For the tree species, see Bollywood tree.
Not to be confused with Hollywood. Hindi language film industry. Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Manipuri Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Santali Sindhi Tamil Telugu Urdu.
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It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Indian cinema.
Discuss April The Salim—Javed screenwriting duo, consisting of Salim Khan left and Javed Akhtar , revolutionized Indian cinema in the s  and are considered Bollywood's greatest screenwriters.
Shah Rukh Khan , one of the " Three Khans ", in He was the most successful Indian actor for most of the s and s . Aamir Khan , one of the "Three Khans", in He has been the most successful Indian actor since the late s.
See also: Muslim social. See also: List of Indian film actors , List of Indian film actresses , List of Indian film directors , List of Indian film music directors , List of Bollywood actors , List of Indian playback singers , and List of Hindi film families.
See also: Bombay Hindi and Tapori word. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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See also: Music of Bollywood , Filmi-ghazal , Filmi qawwali , Hindi dance music , and List of singing actors in Indian cinema. See also: List of highest-grossing Indian films in overseas markets and List of highest-grossing Indian films.
Bollywood portal India portal Film portal. Retrieved 13 August The Numbers. Film Federation of India. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 25 November Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City.
University of Minnesota Press. The Indian Express. Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 21 April Frommer's India. How Hollywood works. Jha; Subhash The Essential Guide to Bollywood.
Roli Books. Business Week. Creativity at Work. Copenhagen Business School. Archived from the original PDF on 30 January Retrieved 18 December India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs.
National Science and Media Museum. Talking Films: Conversations on Hindi Cinema with Javed Akhtar. Oxford University Press.
JA: I write dialogue in Urdu, but the action and descriptions are in English. Then an assistant transcribes the Urdu dialogue into Devnagari because most people read Hindi.
But I write in Urdu. Not only me, I think most of the writers working in this so-called Hindi cinema write in Urdu: Gulzar , or Rajinder Singh Bedi or Inder Raj Anand or Rahi Masoom Raza or Vahajat Mirza , who wrote dialogue for films like Mughal-e-Azam and Gunga Jumna and Mother India.
So most dialogue-writers and most song-writers are from the Urdu discipline, even today. Film World. I feel that the Government should eradicate the age-old evil of certifying Urdu films as Hindi ones.
It is a known fact that Urdu has been willingly accepted and used by the film industry. Two eminent Urdu writers Krishan Chander and Ismat Chughtai have said that "more than seventy-five per cent of films are made in Urdu.
It is a gross misrepresentation and unjust to the people who love Urdu. Bollywood: a guidebook to popular Hindi cinema.
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