August , kurz nach der ersten erfolgreichen bemannten Mondlandung durch Apollo 11, gab die NASA die Mannschaften für die Missionen Apollo 13 und. Drei Astronauten machen sich auf den Weg zum Mond. Es soll die dritte bemannte Mondlandung werden. Doch dort kommt die Crew nie. April kehrte die Apollo 13 Mission auf die Erde zurück. Diese Mondlandung war die Raumfahrtmission mit dem Namen "Apollo.
Stadt oder PLZ eingebenspace-ninja.com › rueckkehr-von-apollovorjahren-gluec. Apollo 13 hatte ein höchst interessantes Ziel. Nach nun schon zwei souveränen Mondlandungen mit sicherer Rückkehr vom Mond schien das Apollo-Programm. war die dritte NASA-Mission, die Menschen auf den Mond bringen sollte. Die Astronauten Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert und Fred Haise hoben am April mit einer Saturn-V-Rakete von Cape Canaveral ab.
Mondlandung Apollo 13 Navigationsmenü VideoApollo 11: Wie die erste Mondlandung möglich wurde - und doch beinahe scheiterte Seit einer Minute warten wir auf ein Zeichen von Apollo. Er vertrat Netflix Serien Empfehlungen 2021 Standpunkt, dass der wissenschaftliche Ertrag durch unbemannte Sonden zu einem Fünftel der Kosten und bereits 3 bis 4 Jahre früher Kinos Münchner Freiheit erbracht werden können. Die Die Gefährlichsten Tiere Der Welt ist eine Art kleineres Raumschiff, das eigentlich für die Erkundung des Mondes gedacht war.
Mondlandung Apollo 13 Euro fr das schwchere Basismodelle, der Drache filme gucken kostenlos. - InhaltsverzeichnisMöchtest du das wirklich?
Jedoch haben die Flugkontrolleure in Houston auch selbst die Entscheidungen getroffen, während bei der Bekämpfung der Pandemie Politiker entscheiden, nicht die Experten.
Beim Vergleich der beiden Krisen werden aber auch Unterschiede deutlich. Und sie betrifft nahezu alle Bereiche der Gesellschaft. Dazu kommt eine ernüchternde Erkenntnis: Wir sind keine Astronauten.
Die "Apollo13"-Mannschaft wurde auf alle denkbaren Notfälle vorbereitet, wie Astronautinnen und Astronauten heutzutage auch. Dadurch übt die Crew immer wieder Routinen, die sie in einem echten Notfall abrufen kann, selbst wenn sich dieser von allen bekannten Szenarien unterscheidet.
Das gibt den Astronauten die Kontrolle über eine Situation und verhindert, dass sie in Panik geraten.
Das ständige Proben aller möglichen Katastrophen würde mit einer gesamten Gesellschaft so nicht funktionieren. HR Logo Dirk Wagner. When pressure reached the cryogenic oxygen tank 2 relief valve full-flow conditions of psi, the pressure began decreasing for about 9 seconds, at which time the relief valve probably reseated, causing the pressure to rise again momentarily.
About a quarter of a second later, a vibration disturbance was noted on the command module accelerometers. The next series of events occurred within a fraction of a second between the accelerometer disturbances and the data loss.
A tank line burst, because of heat, in the vacuum jacket pressurizing the annulus and, in turn, causing the blow-out plug on the vacuum jacket to rupture.
Some mechanism in bay 4 combined with the oxygen buildup in that bay to cause a rapid pressure rise which resulted in separation of the outer panel.
Clarke and directed by Stanley Kubrick. Mass media have a terrible impact on people who lack guidance. Those who believe the Moon landings were faked give several theories about the motives of NASA and the United States government.
The three main theories are below. Motivation for the United States to engage the Soviet Union in a Space Race can be traced to the then on-going Cold War.
Landing on the Moon was viewed as a national and technological accomplishment that would generate world-wide acclaim. But going to the Moon would be risky and expensive, as exemplified by President John F.
Kennedy famously stating in a speech that the United States chose to go because it was hard. Hoax theory debunker Phil Plait says in his book Bad Astronomy , [b] that the Soviets — with their own competing Moon program , an extensive intelligence network and a formidable scientific community able to analyze NASA data — would have 'cried foul' if the United States tried to fake a Moon landing,  especially since their own program had failed.
Proving a hoax would have been a huge propaganda win for the Soviets. Conspiracist Bart Sibrel responded, incorrectly asserting that, "the Soviets did not have the capability to track deep space craft until late in , immediately after which, the last three Apollo missions were abruptly canceled.
Also, there was nothing "abrupt" about the Apollo cancellations , which were made for cost-cutting reasons. These were announced in January and September ,  two full years before the "late " claimed by Sibrel.
Conspiracy theorists claim that NASA faked the landings to avoid humiliation and to ensure that it continued to get funding.
Mary Bennett and David Percy have claimed in the book Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers , that, with all the known and unknown hazards,  NASA would not risk broadcasting an astronaut getting sick or dying on live television.
The American Patriot Friends Network claimed in that the landings helped the United States government distract public attention from the unpopular Vietnam War , and so crewed landings suddenly ended about the same time that the United States ended its involvement in the war.
The war was one of several federal budget items with which NASA had to compete; NASA's budget peaked in , and fell by Many Moon-landing conspiracy theories have been put forward, claiming either that the landings did not happen and that NASA employees have lied, or that the landings did happen but not in the way that has been told.
Conspiracists have focused on perceived gaps or inconsistencies in the historical record of the missions.
The foremost idea is that the whole crewed landing program was a hoax from start to end. Some claim that the technology to send men to the Moon was lacking or that the Van Allen radiation belts , solar flares , solar wind , coronal mass ejections and cosmic rays made such a trip impossible.
Vince Calder and Andrew Johnson, scientists from Argonne National Laboratory , have given detailed answers to conspiracists' claims on the laboratory's website.
Using the scientific process , any hypothesis that is contradicted by the observable facts may be rejected. The 'real landing' hypothesis is a single story since it comes from a single source, but there is no unity in the hoax hypothesis because hoax accounts vary between conspiracists.
According to James Longuski , the conspiracy theories are impossible because of their size and complexity. The conspiracy would have to involve more than , people who worked on the Apollo project for nearly ten years, the 12 men who walked on the Moon, the six others who flew with them as command module pilots, and another six astronauts who orbited the Moon.
Longuski argues that it would have been much easier to really land on the Moon than to generate such a huge conspiracy to fake the landings.
One rebuttal by Sibrel to this claim is that NASA had compartmentalized all of the work on the Apollo program. This would have allowed for only a small number of people to actually know the truth about faking the Moon landings.
Moon-landing conspiracists focus heavily on NASA photos. They point to oddities in photos and films taken on the Moon.
Photography experts including those unrelated to NASA have replied that the oddities are consistent with what should be expected from a real Moon landing, and are not consistent with tweaked or studio imagery.
Some main arguments and counter-arguments are listed below. In some photos, the crosshairs appear to be behind objects.
Conspiracists often use this evidence to suggest that objects were "pasted" over the photographs, and hence obscure the reticle.
Enlargement of a poor-quality scan — both the crosshair and part of the red stripe have "bled out". David Scott salutes the American flag during the Apollo 15 mission.
The arms of the crosshair are washed-out on the white stripes of the flag Photo ID: AS There are no stars in any of the photos; the Apollo 11 astronauts also stated in post-mission press conferences that they did not remember seeing any stars during EVA.
Short-exposure photo of the International Space Station ISS taken from Space Shuttle Atlantis in February during STS — one of many photos taken in space where no stars are visible.
Earth and Mir in June — an example of how sunlight can outshine the stars, making them invisible. It shows the Earth with the correct background of stars.
Long-exposure photo 1. In this image, the Earth is lit by moonlight, not sunlight. The angle and color of shadows are inconsistent. This suggests that artificial lights were used.
There are identical backgrounds in photos which, according to their captions, were taken miles apart. This suggests that a painted background was used.
The number of photos taken is implausibly high. Up to one photo per 50 seconds. The photos contain artifacts like the two seemingly matching 'C's on a rock and on the ground.
These may be labeled studio props. A resident of Perth, Western Australia , a woman named Una Ronald a pseudonym created by the authors of the source  , said that for two or three seconds she saw a Coca-Cola bottle roll across the lower right quadrant of her television screen that was displaying the live broadcast of the Apollo 11 EVA.
She also said that several letters appeared in The West Australian discussing the Coca-Cola bottle incident within ten days of the lunar landing.
The book Moon Shot  contains an obviously fake composite photo of Alan Shepard hitting a golf ball on the Moon with another astronaut. There appear to be "hot spots" in some photos that look like a large spotlight was used in place of the Sun.
The more famous edited version. The contrast has been tweaked yielding the "spotlight effect" and a black band has been pasted at the top.
The astronauts could not have survived the trip because of exposure to radiation from the Van Allen radiation belt and galactic ambient radiation see radiation poisoning and health threat from cosmic rays.
Some conspiracists have suggested that Starfish Prime a high-altitude nuclear test in formed another intense layer on the Van Allen belt.
The Apollo 16 crew could not have survived a big solar flare firing out when they were on their way to the Moon. The flag placed on the surface by the astronauts fluttered despite there being no wind on the Moon.
This suggests that it was filmed on Earth and a breeze caused the flag to flutter. Sibrel said that it may have been caused by indoor fans used to cool the astronauts since their spacesuit cooling systems would have been too heavy on Earth.
Cropped photo of Buzz Aldrin saluting the flag the fingers of Aldrin's right hand can be seen behind his helmet. Cropped photo taken a few seconds later, Buzz Aldrin's hand is down, head turned toward the camera , the flag is unchanged.
Animation of the two photos, showing that though Armstrong's camera moved between exposures, the flag is not waving. Footprints in the Moondust are unexpectedly well preserved, despite the lack of moisture.
The alleged Moon landings used either a sound stage or were filmed outside in a remote desert with the astronauts either using harnesses or slow-motion photography to make it look like they were on the Moon.
The Lunar Modules made no blast craters or any sign of dust scatter. The second stage of the launch rocket or the Lunar Module ascent stage or both made no visible flame.
Apollo 17 LM leaving the Moon; rocket exhaust visible only briefly. Exhaust flame may not be visible outside the atmosphere, as in this photo. Rocket engines are the dark structures at the bottom center.
Note the near-transparency of the exhaust, even in air water is being sprayed up from below. Atlas uses non-hypergolic kerosene RP-1 fuel which gives a bright and very visible exhaust, 1.
Bright flame from first stage of the Saturn V , burning RP The Lunar Modules weighed 17 tons and made no mark on the Moondust, yet footprints can be seen beside them.
The air conditioning units that were part of the astronauts' spacesuits could not have worked in an environment of no atmosphere. The Parkes Observatory in Australia was billed to the world for weeks as the site that would be relaying communications from the first moonwalk.
However, five hours before transmission they were told to stand down. Parkes supposedly had the clearest video feed from the Moon, but Australian media and all other known sources ran a live feed from the United States.
Better signal was supposedly received at Parkes Observatory when the Moon was on the opposite side of the planet.
Blueprints and design and development drawings of the machines involved are missing. David R. Williams NASA archivist at Goddard Space Flight Center and Apollo 11 flight director Eugene F.
Kranz both acknowledged that the original high-quality Apollo 11 telemetry data tapes are missing. Conspiracists see this as evidence that they never existed.
For technical reasons, the Apollo 11 lander carried a slow-scan television SSTV camera see Apollo TV camera. To broadcast the pictures to regular television, a scan conversion had to be done.
The radio telescope at Parkes Observatory in Australia was able to receive the telemetry from the Moon at the time of the Apollo 11 moonwalk.
It also received a better picture than NASA's antenna at Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex. This direct TV signal, along with telemetry data, was recorded onto one-inch fourteen-track analog tape at Parkes.
The original SSTV transmission had better detail and contrast than the scan-converted pictures, and it is this original tape that is missing.
However, still photos of the original SSTV image are available see photos. About fifteen minutes of it were filmed by an amateur 8 mm film camera and these are also available.
Later Apollo missions did not use SSTV. At least some of the telemetry tapes from the ALSEP scientific experiments left on the Moon which ran until still exist, according to Dr.
Copies of those tapes have been found. Others are looking for the missing telemetry tapes for different reasons. The tapes contain the original and highest quality video feed from the Apollo 11 landing.
Some former Apollo personnel want to find the tapes for posterity while NASA engineers looking towards future Moon missions believe the tapes may be useful for their design studies.
They have found that the Apollo 11 tapes were sent for storage at the U. National Archives in , but by , all the Apollo 11 tapes had been returned to the Goddard Space Flight Center at their request.
The tapes are believed to have been stored rather than re-used. In November , COSMOS Online reported that about data tapes recorded in Australia during the Apollo 11 mission had been found in a small marine science laboratory in the main physics building at the Curtin University of Technology in Perth, Australia.
One of the old tapes has been sent to NASA for analysis. The slow-scan television images were not on the tape. In July , NASA indicated that it must have erased the original Apollo 11 Moon footage years ago so that it could re-use the tape.
In December NASA issued a final report on the Apollo 11 telemetry tapes. Lovell's initial thought on hearing the noise was that Haise had activated the LM's cabin-repressurization valve, which also produced a bang Haise enjoyed doing so to startle his crewmates but Lovell could see that Haise had no idea what had happened.
Swigert initially thought that a meteoroid might have struck the LM, but he and Lovell quickly realized there was no leak.
Almost everything in the CSM required power. Although the bus momentarily returned to normal status, soon both buses A and B were short on voltage. Haise checked the status of the fuel cells, and found that two of them were dead.
Mission rules forbade entering lunar orbit unless all fuel cells were operational. When Kranz questioned Liebergot on this he initially responded that there might be false readings due to an instrumentation problem; he was often teased about that in the years to come.
These would be needed for the final hours of the mission, but the remaining fuel cell, already starved for oxygen, was drawing from the surge tank.
A key decision was the choice of return path. A "direct abort" would use the SM's main engine the Service Propulsion System or SPS to return before reaching the Moon.
But the accident could have damaged the SPS, and the fuel cells would have to last at least another hour to meet its power requirements, so Kranz instead decided on a longer route: the spacecraft would swing around the Moon before heading back to Earth.
As the CM was being shut down, Lovell copied down its guidance system's orientation information and performed hand calculations to transfer it to the LM's guidance system, which had been turned off; at his request Mission Control checked his figures.
Jerry Bostick and other Flight Dynamics Officers FIDOs were anxious both to shorten the travel time and to move splashdown to the Pacific Ocean , where the main recovery forces were located.
One option would shave 36 hours off the return time, but required jettisoning the SM; this would expose the CM's heat shield to space during the return journey, something for which it had not been designed.
The FIDOs also proposed other solutions. After a meeting involving NASA officials and engineers, the senior individual present, Manned Spaceflight Center director Robert R.
While preparing for the burn the crew was told that the S-IVB had impacted the Moon as planned, leading Lovell to quip, "Well, at least something worked on this flight.
The astronauts used the one star available whose position could not be obscured — the Sun. The LM carried enough oxygen, but that still left the problem of removing carbon dioxide , which was absorbed by canisters of lithium hydroxide pellets.
The LM's stock of canisters, meant to accommodate two astronauts for 45 hours on the Moon, was not enough to support three astronauts for the return journey to Earth.
Engineers on the ground devised a way to bridge the gap, using plastic, covers ripped from procedures manuals, duct tape, and other items.
The procedure for building the device was read to the crew by CAPCOM Joseph Kerwin over the course of an hour, and it was built by Swigert and Haise; carbon dioxide levels began dropping immediately.
Lovell later described this improvisation as "a fine example of cooperation between ground and space". The CSM's electricity came from fuel cells that produced water as a byproduct, but the LM was powered by silver-zinc batteries which did not, so both electrical power and water needed for equipment cooling as well as drinking would be critical.
LM power consumption was reduced to the lowest level possible;  Swigert was able to fill some drinking bags with water from the CM's water tap,  but even assuming rationing of personal consumption, Haise initially calculated they would run out of water for cooling about five hours before reentry.
This seemed acceptable because the systems of Apollo 11's LM, once jettisoned in lunar orbit, had continued to operate for seven to eight hours even with the water cut off.
Lovell considered having the crew don their spacesuits, but decided this would be too hot. Instead, Lovell and Haise wore their lunar EVA boots and Swigert put on an extra coverall.
All three astronauts were cold, especially Swigert, who had got his feet wet while filling the water bags and had no lunar overshoes since he had not been scheduled to walk on the Moon.
As they had been told not to discharge their urine to space to avoid disturbing the trajectory, they had to store it in bags.
Water condensed on the walls, though any condensation that may have been behind equipment panels  caused no problems, partly because of the extensive electrical insulation improvements instituted after the Apollo 1 fire.
Despite the accuracy of the transearth injection, the spacecraft slowly drifted off course, necessitating a correction.
Nevertheless, yet another burn was needed at , using the LM's reaction control system RCS thrusters, for The SM was jettisoned less than half an hour later, allowing the crew to see the damage for the first time, and photograph it.
They reported that an entire panel was missing from the SM's exterior, the fuel cells above the oxygen tank shelf were tilted, that the high-gain antenna was damaged, and there was a considerable amount of debris elsewhere.
The last problem to be solved was how to separate the lunar module a safe distance away from the command module just before reentry.
The normal procedure, in lunar orbit, was to release the LM and then use the service module's RCS to pull the CSM away, but by this point, the SM had already been released.
Grumman , manufacturer of the LM, assigned a team of University of Toronto engineers, led by senior scientist Bernard Etkin , to solve the problem of how much air pressure to use to push the modules apart.
The astronauts applied the solution, which was successful. Later helicopter surveys found no radioactive leakage. Ionization of the air around the command module during reentry would typically cause a four-minute communications blackout.
They flew to Hawaii, where President Richard Nixon awarded them the Presidential Medal of Freedom , the highest civilian honor. Paine , but Paine recommended the mission operations team.
We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published.
We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima , which picked us up, because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were.
Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact: there we found President Nixon and [NASA Administrator] Dr.
Paine to meet us, along with my wife Marilyn, Fred's wife Mary who being pregnant, also had a doctor along just in case , and bachelor Jack's parents, in lieu of his usual airline stewardesses.
Worldwide interest in the Apollo program was reawakened by the incident; television coverage was seen by millions. Four Soviet ships headed toward the landing area to assist if needed,  and other nations offered assistance should the craft have to splash down elsewhere.
The rescue received more public attention than any spaceflight to that point, other than the first Moon landing on Apollo There were worldwide headlines, and people surrounded television sets to get the latest developments, offered by networks who interrupted their regular programming for bulletins.
Pope Paul VI led a congregation of 10, people in praying for the astronauts' safe return; ten times that number offered prayers at a religious festival in India.
Even more outside the U. The panel's departure exposed the sector to space, snuffing out the fire, and it probably hit the nearby high-gain antenna, disrupting communications to Earth for 1.
The report questioned the use of Teflon and other materials shown to be flammable in supercritical oxygen, such as aluminum, within the tank.
Nonetheless, the switches Beech used were not rated for 65 volts. The probability of damage from this was low, but it is possible that the fill line assembly was loose and made worse by the fall.
After discussion among NASA and the contractors, attempts to empty the tank resumed on March When it would not empty normally, the heaters in the tank were turned on to boil off the oxygen.
This heating had been approved by Lovell and Mattingly of the prime crew, as well as by NASA managers and engineers.
For Apollo 14 and subsequent missions, the oxygen tank was redesigned, the thermostats being upgraded to handle the proper voltage.
The heaters were retained since they were necessary to maintain oxygen pressure. The stirring fans, with their unsealed motors, were removed, which meant the oxygen quantity gauge was no longer accurate.
This required adding a third tank so that no tank would go below half full. The quantity probe was upgraded from aluminum to stainless steel.
The fuel cell oxygen supply valves were redesigned to isolate the Teflon-coated wiring from the oxygen. The spacecraft and Mission Control monitoring systems were modified to give more immediate and visible warnings of anomalies.
The LM was modified to make transfer of power from LM to CM easier. Lovell retired from NASA and the Navy in , entering the private sector. He took a leave of absence from NASA in and left the agency to enter politics, being elected to the House of Representatives in , but died of cancer before he could be sworn in.
Several experiments were completed even though the mission did not land on the Moon. A series of photographs of Earth, taken to test whether cloud height could be determined from synchronous satellites , achieved the desired results.
Da wusste ich, es ist etwas passiert. Die US-Fernsehsender übertrugen keine Live-Sendungen aus dem Raumschiff, sie wurden lediglich im Kontrollzentrum Houston gesehen.
Erst als der Unfall bekannt wurde, schalteten sich Medien aus aller Welt zu. Nachdem eine von Edgar Cortright, dem Leiter des Langley-Forschungszentrums der NASA, geleitete interne Untersuchungskommission im Juni ihren Bericht veröffentlicht hatte, wurden konstruktive Änderungen an den Sauerstofftanks der noch verbleibenden Apollo-Servicemodule vorgenommen.
Im Januar wurde das Apollo-Programm mit der Mission Apollo 14 fortgesetzt. Januar gestrichen worden auf Grund von Budgetkürzungen im US-Haushalt endgültig gestrichen.
Die verbliebenen vier Missionen wurden mit 14 bis 17 neu durchnummeriert. Es mag eine Rolle gespielt haben, dass man befürchtete, bei einem weiteren und möglicherweise tödlichen Unglück könnte das gesamte bemannte Raumfahrtprogramm gestrichen werden.
Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit der Raumfahrtmission. Siehe auch : Liste der künstlichen Objekte auf dem Mond. Missionen des Apollo-Programms.
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Kennedy Space Center , LCA. Apollo 13 — v. Jim Lovell , Jack Swigert , Fred Haise. All three astronauts quickly gathered in Odyssey to study the instruments in an effort to determine what had happened.
Noting that one of the main electrical systems aboard was degrading, Haise and Lovell radioed the information to mission control in Houston, quickly turning a routine flight into one of the most exciting episodes in space history.
All thoughts of a lunar landing had long since been abandoned. The anxiety for the safety of the astronauts was felt in every corner of the globe, and millions of persons remained glued to television and radio sets as the perilous journey unfolded.
In the meantime, however, the lunar module would be their home. When the astronauts first transferred into and activated Aquarius , Apollo 13 was about 20 hours from the Moon.
Plans were made for transferring out of the hybrid trajectory and onto the free-return trajectory, a maneuver that was executed in the early morning hours of April At mission control, teams of experts worked to check out all feasible maneuvers and situations in flight simulators, feeding every plan and contingency through computers.Cocoa, Florida. The astronauts used the one star Streaming Strafe whose position could not be obscured — the Sun. Almost everything in the CSM required power. Use the HTML below. Silbermedaille Mattiert, CH UNC. The Apollo 13 Mission was planned as a lunar landing mission but was aborted en route to the moon after about 56 hours of flight due to loss of service module cryogenic oxygen and consequent loss of capability to generate electrical power, to provide oxygen and to produce water. Vor 50 Jahren startete "Apollo 13" zum Mond. Die Mission gilt bis heute als eine der dramatischsten Beinahe-Katastrophen und ist zugleich ein Beispiel für erfolgreiches Krisenmanagement. Von Dirk. Moon landing conspiracy theories claim that some or all elements of the Apollo program and the associated Moon landings were hoaxes staged by NASA, possibly with the aid of other space-ninja.com most notable claim is that the six crewed landings (–) were faked and that twelve Apollo astronauts did not actually walk on the space-ninja.coms groups and individuals have made claims since.