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Afrika äthiopien


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Afrika äthiopien

Eine wichtige Rolle spielt in Äthiopien das Portfolio der GIZ bei der Afrikanischen Union (AU), die ihren Sitz in der Hauptstadt Addis Abeba hat. Für das BMZ und. Äthiopien [ʔɛˈtʰi̯oːpʰi̯ən] (amharisch ኢትዮጵያ Ityop̣p̣əya, aus altgriechisch Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) ist ein Binnenstaat im Nordosten Afrikas. Zur Zeit des. Flüchtlinge aus den Nachbarländern, spielt das Land eine zentrale Rolle für die politische Stabilität und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung der Region am Horn von Afrika.

Äthiopien bereisen

Flüchtlinge aus den Nachbarländern, spielt das Land eine zentrale Rolle für die politische Stabilität und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung der Region am Horn von Afrika. Unter den afrikanischen Ländern ist Äthiopien einzigartig: Als einziges nie kolonialisiertes Land blickt es auf eine Jahre alte Geschichte zurück und verfügt. Immer mehr Menschen entdecken Äthiopien als Reiseland. Und das Land am Horn von Afrika hat auch viel zu bieten: Atemberaubende Landschaften, eine.

Afrika Äthiopien Menyja e navigimit Video

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Afrika äthiopien

Januar 2011 im Internet Archive) Info: Afrika äthiopien Archivlink Midnight Sun Schweden automatisch eingesetzt und noch nicht geprft? - Navigationsmenü

Auf Proteste gegen die Regierung reagierte diese Mark Hamill der Verhängung des Ausnahmezustands Oktober bis August und Februar bis Juni

Die illegalen E-Book Afrika äthiopien von diesem und letztem Jahr Keepass Plugin Installieren bei uns natrlich dennoch verfgbar. - EU zeigt sich besorgt

Bis war das Land eine Monarchie, danach Serien Online Streamen eine kommunistisch ausgerichtete Militärdiktatur.

If there is need to go to war, we could get millions readied. The federal government, under the Prosperity Party , requested that the National Election Board of Ethiopia cancel elections for due to the health and safety concerns of COVID No official date was set for the next election at that time, but the government promised that once a vaccine was developed for COVID that elections would move forward.

They worked with regional opposition parties and included international observers in the election process.

Relations between the federal government and the Tigray regional government deteriorated after the election, [] and on 4 November , Abiy began a military offensive in the Tigray Region in response to attacks on army units stationed there, causing thousands of refugees to flee to neighboring Sudan.

The politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic , wherein the Prime Minister is the head of government.

The President is the head of state but with largely ceremonial powers. Executive power is exercised by the government.

Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. On the basis of Article 78 of the Ethiopian Constitution, the Judiciary is completely independent of the executive and the legislature.

According to the Democracy Index published by the United Kingdom-based Economist Intelligence Unit in late , Ethiopia was an "authoritarian regime", ranking as the th-most democratic out of countries.

However, since the appointment of Abiy Ahmed as prime minister in , the situation has rapidly evolved. In July , during a trip that then-U.

President Barack Obama took to Ethiopia, he highlighted the role of the country in the fight against Islamic terrorism. The election of Ethiopia's member constituent assembly was held in June This assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections.

There was a landslide victory for the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front EPRDF. International and non-governmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so.

The first President was Negasso Gidada. The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism , devolving significant powers to regional, ethnically based authorities.

Ethiopia today has ten semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under the present government, some fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press , are circumscribed.

Citizens have little access to media other than the state-owned networks, and most private newspapers struggle to remain open and suffer periodic harassment from the government.

The government uses press laws governing libel to intimidate journalists who are critical of its policies. Meles' government was elected in in Ethiopia's first-ever multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized by international observers and denounced by the opposition as fraudulent.

The EPRDF also won the election returning Meles to power. Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both the opposition and observers from the European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet international standards for fair and free elections.

The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in Oromia state the authorities used concerns over insurgency and terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods to silence critics following the election, particularly people sympathetic to the registered opposition party Oromo National Congress ONC.

The biggest opposition party in was the Coalition for Unity and Democracy CUD. After various internal divisions, most of the CUD party leaders have established the new Unity for Democracy and Justice party led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa.

A member of the country's Oromo ethnic group, Ms. Birtukan Mideksa is the first woman to lead a political party in Ethiopia. In , the top five opposition parties were the Unity for Democracy and Justice led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa, United Ethiopian Democratic Forces led by Dr.

Beyene Petros , Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement led by Dr. Bulcha Demeksa , Oromo People's Congress led by Dr. Merera Gudina, and United Ethiopian Democratic Party — Medhin Party led by Lidetu Ayalew.

After the elections, Ethiopia lost its single remaining opposition MP; [] there are now no opposition MPs in the Ethiopian parliament.

Since , landlocked Ethiopia has had no navy and the army is relatively small with about , volunteers on active duty. In Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed said on state TV: "We built one of the strongest ground and air force in Africa Recent human rights violations include the killing of peaceful protestors by direct government gunfire in the Oromo and Amhara regions in Merera Gudina, leader of the Oromo People's Congress, said the East African country was at a "crossroads".

They're protesting against land grabs, reparations, stolen elections, the rising cost of living, many things. Among the Omotic Karo-speaking and Hamer peoples in southern Ethiopia, adults and children with physical abnormalities are considered to be mingi , "ritually impure".

The latter are believed to exert an evil influence upon others; disabled infants have traditionally been murdered without a proper burial. In , the Oakland Institute released a report accusing the Ethiopian government of forcing the relocation of "hundreds of thousands of indigenous people from their lands" in the Gambela Region [] According to several reports by the organization, those who refused were the subject of a variety of intimidation techniques including physical and sexual abuse, which sometimes led to deaths.

According to official reports, 86 people were killed. The report stated that in , at least 25 people, suspected of supporting the Oromo Liberation Army , were killed by the forces in parts the Oromia Region.

Besides, between January and September , at least 10, people were detained under suspicion, where most were "subjected to brutal beatings".

Before , Ethiopia was divided into thirteen provinces , many derived from historical regions. The nation now has a tiered governmental system consisting of a federal government overseeing regional states, zones, districts woreda , and kebeles "neighbourhoods".

The kililoch are subdivided into sixty-eight zones , and then further into woredas and several special woredas. The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states, which can establish their own government and democracy as long as it is in line with the federal government's constitution.

Each region has at its apex a regional council where members are directly elected to represent the districts and the council has legislative and executive power to direct internal affairs of the regions.

Article 39 of the Ethiopian Constitution further gives every regional state the right to secede from Ethiopia. There is debate, however, as to how much of the power guaranteed in the constitution is actually given to the states.

The councils implement their mandate through an executive committee and regional sectoral bureaus.

Such elaborate structure of council, executive, and sectoral public institutions is replicated to the next level woreda.

At 1,, square kilometres , It lies between the 3rd parallel north and the 15th parallel north and longitudes 33rd meridian east and 48th meridian east.

The major portion of Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa , which is the easternmost part of the African landmass.

The territories that have frontiers with Ethiopia are Eritrea to the north and then, moving in a clockwise direction, Djibouti, Somaliland, Somalia, Kenya, South Sudan and Sudan.

Within Ethiopia is a vast highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley , which runs generally southwest to northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes , or semi-desert.

There is a great diversity of terrain with wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation and settlement patterns.

Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts.

Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. It also has many endemic species, notably the gelada , the walia ibex and the Ethiopian wolf "Simien fox".

The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, and this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.

The predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide topographic-induced variation. The Ethiopian Highlands cover most of the country and have a climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at similar proximity to the Equator.

It experiences a mild climate year round. With temperatures fairly uniform year round, the seasons in Addis Ababa are largely defined by rainfall: a dry season from October to February, a light rainy season from March to May, and a heavy rainy season from June to September.

There are on average seven hours of sunshine per day. The dry season is the sunniest time of the year, though even at the height of the rainy season in July and August there are still usually several hours per day of bright sunshine.

Most major cities and tourist sites in Ethiopia lie at a similar elevation to Addis Ababa and have a comparable climate.

In less elevated regions, particularly the lower lying Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands in the east of the country, the climate can be significantly hotter and drier.

Ethiopia is vulnerable to many of the effects of climate change. These include increases in temperature and changes in precipitation. Climate change in these forms threatens food security and the economy, which is agriculture based.

Since April , Ethiopian prime minister, Abiy Ahmed has promoted Beautifying Sheger , a development project that aims to reduce the negative effects of climate change — among other things — in the capital city of Addis Ababa.

Ethiopia has 31 endemic species of mammals. However, with last sightings at Finicha'a , this canid is thought to be potentially locally extinct.

The Ethiopian wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia. Ethiopia is a global center of avian diversity.

To date more than bird species have been recorded in Ethiopia, twenty of which are endemic to the country.

Many of these birds feed on butterflies, like the Bicyclus anynana. Historically, throughout the African continent, wildlife populations have been rapidly declining due to logging, civil wars, pollution, poaching, and other human factors.

When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, animals do not have time to adjust. Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gases.

Ethiopia has many species listed as critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable to global extinction.

The threatened species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories based on IUCN ratings : critically endangered , endangered , and vulnerable.

Ethiopia is one of the eight fundamental and independent centers of origin for cultivated plants in the world. In rural areas the government also provides non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat.

Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management.

This project is assisting more than 80 communities. In and , Ethiopia's growth performance and considerable development gains were challenged by high inflation and a difficult balance of payments situation.

In spite of fast growth in recent years, GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and the economy faces a number of serious structural problems.

However, with a focused investment in public infrastructure and industrial parks, Ethiopia's economy is addressing its structural problems to become a hub for light manufacturing in Africa.

The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may lease land up to 99 years , and are unable to mortgage or sell.

Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user.

Land distribution and administration is considered an area where corruption is institutionalized, and facilitation payments as well as bribes are often demanded when dealing with land-related issues.

A lot of anger and distrust sometimes results in public protests. In addition, agricultural productivity remains low, and frequent droughts still beset the country, also leading to internal displacement.

Ethiopia has 14 major rivers flowing from its highlands, including the Nile. It has the largest water reserves in Africa. As of [update] , hydroelectric plants represented around The remaining electrical power was generated from fossil fuels 8.

As of [update] , total electricity production was There were 0. In , Egypt and Sudan signed a bilateral treaty, the Nile Waters Agreement , which gave both countries exclusive maritime rights over the Nile waters.

Ever since, Egypt has discouraged almost all projects in Ethiopia that sought to utilize the local Nile tributaries.

This had the effect of discouraging external financing of hydropower and irrigation projects in western Ethiopia, thereby impeding water resource-based economic development projects.

However, Ethiopia is in the process of constructing a large 6, MW hydroelectric dam on the Blue Nile river.

When completed, this Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam is slated to be the largest hydroelectric power station in Africa.

For the year —18 E. However, the service sector represents the largest portion of the GDP. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises, and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector.

Principal crops include coffee , legumes , oilseeds , cereals , potatoes, sugarcane , and vegetables. Ethiopia is also a Vavilov center of diversity for domesticated crops, including enset , [] coffee and teff.

Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities with the exception of Gold exports , and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner.

Ethiopia is Africa's second biggest maize producer. Farmers in the eastern part of the country, where a warming climate is already impacting production, have struggled in recent years, and many are currently reporting largely failed harvests as a result of a prolonged drought".

Ethiopia also has the 5th largest inventory of cattle. Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world.

Cross-border trade by pastoralists is often informal and beyond state control and regulation. This trade helps lower food prices, increase food security, relieve border tensions, and promote regional integration.

Furthermore, the government of Ethiopia is purportedly unhappy with lost tax revenue and foreign exchange revenues.

With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business, with Taytu becoming the first luxury designer label in the country.

With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, Ethiopia also plans to export electric power to its neighbors.

Most regard Ethiopia's large water resources and potential as its "white oil" and its coffee resources as "black gold".

The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some of the less inhabited regions. Political instability in those regions, however, has inhibited development.

Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa.

In , the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam project was commenced. When completed, it will provide surplus energy in Ethiopia which will be available for export to neighboring countries.

It is not clear, when this section will be built and opened. As the first part of a ten-year Road Sector Development Program, between and the Ethiopian government began a sustained effort to improve its infrastructure of roads.

Ethiopia had 58 airports as of [update] , [4] and 61 as of [update]. Ethiopian Airlines is the country's flag carrier , and is wholly owned by the Government of Ethiopia.

Ethiopia's total population has grown from Currently, the population growth rate is among the top ten countries in the world. The country's population is highly diverse, containing over 80 different ethnic groups.

According to the Ethiopian national census of , the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, at The Amhara represent Other prominent ethnic groups are as follows: Sidama 4.

Afroasiatic-speaking communities make up the majority of the population. Among these, Semitic speakers often collectively refer to themselves as the Habesha people.

The largest ethnic groups among these include the Nuer and Anuak. In addition, Ethiopia had over 75, Italian settlers during the Italian occupation of the country.

In , Ethiopia hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately , The majority of this population came from Somalia approximately 64, persons , Eritrea 41, and Sudan 25, The Ethiopian government required nearly all refugees to live in refugee camps.

Languages of Ethiopia as of [update] Census [10]. According to Ethnologue , there are 90 individual languages spoken in Ethiopia. The former includes Oromo language , spoken by the Oromo , and Somali , spoken by the Somalis ; the latter includes Amharic , spoken by the Amhara , and Tigrinya , spoken by the Tigrayans.

Together, these four groups make up about three-quarters of Ethiopia's population. Other Afroasiatic languages with a significant number of speakers include the Cushitic Sidamo , Afar , Hadiyya and Agaw languages , as well as the Semitic Gurage languages , Harari , Silt'e , and Argobba languages.

Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by Omotic ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Among these idioms are Aari , Bench , Dime , Dizin , Gamo-Gofa-Dawro , Maale , Hamer , and Wolaytta.

Languages from the Nilo-Saharan family are also spoken by ethnic minorities concentrated in the southwestern parts of the country.

These languages include Nuer , Anuak , Nyangatom , Majang , Suri , Me'en , and Mursi. English is the most widely spoken foreign language, and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools.

Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by regional languages such as Oromiffa, Somali or Tigrinya.

The various regions of Ethiopia and chartered cities are free to determine their own working languages. Somali is the official working language of Somali region and Dire Dawa , while Afar, [] Harari, [] and Tigrinya [] are recognized as official working languages in their respective regions.

Recently the Ethiopian Government announced that Afar , Amharic , Oromo , Somali , and Tigrinya are adopted as official federal working languages of Ethiopia.

Also, Amharic and Tigrinya have many words borrowed from the Italian language. Ethiopia's principal orthography is the Ge'ez script.

Employed as an abugida for several of the country's languages, it first came into usage in the 6th and 5th centuries BC as an abjad to transcribe the Semitic Ge'ez language.

During the s, the Ethiopic character set was computerized. It is today part of the Unicode standard as Ethiopic, Ethiopic Extended , Ethiopic Supplement and Ethiopic Extended-A.

Other writing systems have also been used over the years by different Ethiopian communities. The latter include Bakri Sapalo 's script for Oromo.

Religion in Ethiopia Ethiopia has close historical ties with all three of the world's major Abrahamic religions. In the 4th century, the Ethiopian empire was one of the first in the world to officially adopt Christianity as the state religion.

As a result of the resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, in the miaphysites , [] which included the vast majority of Christians in Egypt and Ethiopia, were accused of monophysitism and designated as heretics under the common name of Coptic Christianity see Oriental Orthodoxy.

While no longer distinguished as a state religion, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church remains the majority Christian denomination. There is also a substantial Muslims demographic, representing around a third of the population.

Additionally, Ethiopia is the site of the First Hegira , a major emigration in Islamic history. A town in the Tigray Region , Negash is the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa.

Until the s, a substantial population of Beta Israel Ethiopian Jews resided in Ethiopia. The Falash Mura are Beta Israel who, while identifying as Jews, adopted elements of Christianity due to missionary efforts, and now practice a syncretic form of Ethiopian Judaism mixed with Christianity; they number about , people.

The Beta Abraham are regarded as a medieval offshoot of the Beta Israel, having incorporated elements of traditional African religion , and number about 8, While both still identify as Beta Israel, they exist outside the main community.

The official Beta Israel community leaders tentatively accept the Falash Mura, and have requested they be allowed to emigrate to Israel.

The Beta Abraham have historically been shunned by most other communities, having a reputation of being "sorcerers".

According to the National Census, Christians make up Sunnis are largely Shafi'is or Salafis , and there are also many Sufi Muslims there.

The Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first polities to officially embrace Christianity , when Frumentius of Tyre , called Fremnatos or Abba Selama "Father of Peace" in Ethiopia, converted Emperor Ezana during the fourth century.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is part of Oriental Orthodoxy. It is by far the largest Christian denomination, although a number of P'ent'ay Protestant churches have recently gained ground.

Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion in when a group of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca. The disciples subsequently migrated to Abyssinia via modern-day Eritrea, which was at the time ruled by Ashama ibn-Abjar , a pious Christian emperor.

According to the Population and Housing Census, around 1,, people in Ethiopia are adherents of traditional religions. An additional , residents practice other creeds.

Christians predominantly live in the northern Amhara and Tigray regions, and are largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.

Those belonging to P'ent'ay are centered in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region SNNP and Oromia. Muslims in Ethiopia predominantly adhere to Sunni Islam and generally inhabit eastern and northeastern areas; particularly the Somali, Afar, Dire Dawa and Harari regions.

Practitioners of traditional religions mainly reside in the nation's far southwestern and western rural borderlands, in the SNNP, Benishangul-Gumuz and Gambela regions.

Human rights groups have regularly accused the government of arresting activists, journalists and bloggers to stamp out dissent among some religious communities.

They were charged with trying to create an Islamic state in the majority Christian country. All the defendants denied the charges and claimed that they were merely protesting in defence of their rights.

There is a small, yet significant number of Jews in Ethiopia, who claim to be one of the lost tribes of Israel.

In the s, the number of Ethiopian-Jews decreased, as many started moving to Israel. The US also has a significant number of Ethiopian-Jews, with a population slightly less than that of Ethiopia.

Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments' and ecosystems' capacity to provide people with basic services.

First, in — during the Italian occupation under Mussolini's fascist government, and from to when the populations of urban centers tripled.

In , Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water. The second period of growth was from to when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions.

This pattern slowed due to the Land Reform program instituted by the government, which provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas.

As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of — This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture.

The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act.

Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better lives. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive.

The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the landholdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility.

These unhealthy farmers have difficulty working the land and the productivity drops further. Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty and poor sanitation.

Notably, government-built condominium housing complexes have sprung up throughout the city, benefiting close to , individuals.

This contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water. Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations owing to their educational opportunities.

Many NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations are working to solve this problem; however, most are far apart, uncoordinated, and working in isolation.

The World Health Organization 's World Health Report gives a figure of 1, physicians for , [] which comes to about 2. A brain drain associated with globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for better economic opportunities in the West.

Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable contagious diseases worsened by poor sanitation and malnutrition. The state of public health is considerably better in the cities.

Birth rates , infant mortality rates , and death rates are lower in cities than in rural areas due to better access to education, medicines, and hospitals.

There are hospitals 12 in Addis Ababa and health centers in Ethiopia. The government of Ethiopia and many international organizations like World Health Organization WHO , and the United Nations, are launching campaigns and are working aggressively to improve Ethiopia's health conditions and promote health awareness on AIDS and other communicable diseases.

Ethiopia has a relatively high infant and maternal mortality rate. Although, Ethiopia did not meet the MDG target of reducing maternal mortality rate by two-thirds in , there are improvements nonetheless.

For instance, the contraception prevalence rate increased from 8. Those who are expected to give birth at home have elderly women serve as midwives who assist with the delivery.

The low availability of health-care professionals with modern medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services, leads to the preponderance of less-reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments.

One common cultural practice, irrespective of religion or economic status, is female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female genital cutting FGC , a procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.

The country has a high prevalence of FGM, but prevalence is lower among young girls. The Government of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia is signatory to various international conventions and treaties that protect the rights of women and children.

Its constitution provides for the fundamental rights and freedoms for women. There is an attempt being made to raise the social and economic status of women through eliminating all legal and customary practices, which hinder women's equal participation in society and undermine their social status.

The National Mental Health Strategy, published in , introduced the development of policy designed to improve mental health care in Ethiopia.

This strategy mandated that mental health be integrated into the primary health care system. For example, the burden of depression is estimated to have increased Education in Ethiopia was dominated by the Tewahedo Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early s.

The current system follows school expansion schemes which are very similar to the system in the rural areas during the s, with an addition of deeper regionalization, providing rural education in students' own languages starting at the elementary level, and with more budget finances allocated to the education sector.

The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school.

Access to education in Ethiopia has improved significantly. The literacy rate has increased in recent years: according to the census, the literacy rate in Ethiopia was The same report also indicated that the female literacy rate has increased from 27 to 39 percent from to , and the male literacy rate has increased from 49 to 59 percent over the same period for persons 10 years and older.

Ethiopians have a different naming system from the family name -based Western system. Children add the given names of their father and paternal grandfather consecutively to their own given name.

For compatibility purposes, as is done in passports, the grandfather's given name is taken as a family surname , and a person's given name and their father's given name form the first names.

Everyone is addressed by their given name. Ethiopia has several local calendars. The most widely known is the Ethiopian calendar , also known as the Ge'ez calendar.

It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar , which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopian calendar has twelve months of exactly 30 days each plus five or six epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month.

The Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez.

Like the Julian calendar , the sixth epagomenal day—which in essence is a leap day —is added every four years without exception on 29 August of the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day.

Also, a seven- to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation of Jesus.

Another calendrical system was developed around BC by the Oromo. A lunar-stellar calendar, this Oromo calendar relies on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars or constellations.

Time in Ethiopia is counted differently from most countries. The Ethiopian day is reckoned as beginning at as opposed to , coinciding with sunrise throughout the year.

To convert between the Ethiopian clock and Western clocks, one must add or subtract six hours to the Western time.

For example, local Addis Ababa time is called "8 at night" in Ethiopia, while is called "2 in the evening". The best-known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various types of thick meat stews , known as wat in Ethiopian culture, and vegetable side dishes served atop injera , a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour.

Almost universally in Ethiopia, it is common to eat from the same dish in the center of the table with a group of people.

It is also a common custom to feed others in your group with your own hands—a tradition referred to as " gursha ". Chechebsa , Marqa, Chukko, Michirra and Dhanga are the most popular dishes from the Oromo.

Kitfo , which originated among the Gurage , is one of the country's most popular delicacies. Tihlo is now very popular in Amhara and spreading further south.

Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation EBC , formerly known as ETV, is the government-owned national channel. Other television stations in the country include Kana TV.

The most widely circulated newspapers in Ethiopia are Addis Fortune , Capital Ethiopia , Ethiopian Reporter , Addis Zemen [ citation needed ] Amharic and Ethiopian Herald [ citation needed ].

The sole internet service provider is the national telecommunications firm Ethio telecom. A large portion of users in the country access the internet through mobile devices.

In August , following protest and demonstration in the Oromia Region, all access to the internet was shut down for a period of two days.

Although the reason for the restriction was not confirmed by the government, [] the move was similar to a measure taken during the same period in , after a leak of test questions.

The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds.

Ethiopian music uses a distinct modal system that is pentatonic , with characteristically long intervals between some notes. As with many other aspects of Ethiopian culture and tradition, tastes in music and lyrics are strongly linked with those in neighboring Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti, and Sudan.

Traditionally, lyricism in Ethiopian song writing is strongly associated with views of patriotism or national pride, romance, friendship, and a most unique type of memoire known as 'Tizita'.

The main sports in Ethiopia are track and field particularly long distance running and football. Ethiopian athletes have won many Olympic gold medals in track and field, most of them in long distance running.

Haile Gebrselassie is a world-renowned long distance runner with several world records under his belt.

Kenenisa Bekele and Tirunesh Dibaba are also dominant runners, particularly in the 5, and 10, meters in which they hold the world records.

Other notable Ethiopian athletes are Mamo Wolde , Miruts Yifter , Derartu Tulu , Meseret Defar , Almaz Ayana , Birhane Adere , Tiki Gelana , Genzebe Dibaba , Tariku Bekele , and Gelete Burka.

As of [update] and going into , the current national Ethiopian national football team nicknamed the Walayia Antelopes made history by qualifying for the Africa Cup of Nations and reached the last 10 African football teams in the last stage of qualification for the FIFA World Cup.

Noted players include captain Adane Girma and top scorer Saladin Said. Ethiopia has sub-Saharan Africa's longest basketball tradition as it established a national basketball team in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Country in East Africa. For other uses, see Ethiopia disambiguation. The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia's norms and is inclusive of all essential details.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article contains several patronymic names rather than family names.

These persons are addressed by their given name , and not by their inherited name. Name in national languages. Regional languages [3].

Harari Sidama Languages of Ethiopia. Oromo Main article: History of Ethiopia. Further information: Ethiopian historiography.

Main articles: Migration to Abyssinia , List of expeditions of Muhammad , and Hegira. Main articles: Zagwe dynasty and Ethiopian Empire.

Main articles: Sultanate of Aussa and Mudaito Dynasty. Main article: Zemene Mesafint. Main articles: Italian Ethiopia , Italian East Africa , Arbegnoch , and Black Lions.

See also: Eritrean independence referendum, Main article: Politics of Ethiopia. See also: Rulers and Heads of State of Ethiopia , Foreign relations of Ethiopia , Ethiopian National Defense Force , and Ethiopian protests.

Main article: Government of Ethiopia. Main article: Ethiopian National Defense Force. Main article: Human rights in Ethiopia.

See also: LGBT rights in Ethiopia. Main articles: Subdivisions of Ethiopia , Regions of Ethiopia , List of zones of Ethiopia , and Districts of Ethiopia.

Main article: Geography of Ethiopia. See also: Beautifying Sheger. Main article: Wildlife of Ethiopia. See also: Environmental issues in Ethiopia and Deforestation in Ethiopia.

Main article: Economy of Ethiopia. See also: Foreign aid to Ethiopia. See also: Energy in Ethiopia and List of power stations in Ethiopia.

Main article: Coffee production in Ethiopia. Main article: Transport in Ethiopia. Main article: Demographics of Ethiopia.

See also: People of Ethiopia and List of ethnic groups in Ethiopia. Ethnic groups in Ethiopia Ethnic group Population Oromo. Main article: Languages of Ethiopia.

Amharic Somali 6. Tigrinya 5. Sidamo 4. Wolaytta 2. Gurage 2. Afar 1. Hadiyya 1. Gamo-Gofa-Dawro 1. Main article: Religion in Ethiopia.

Islam Traditional faiths 2. Catholicism 0. Judaism 0. Main article: Beta Israel. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: List of cities and towns in Ethiopia.

Largest cities or towns in Ethiopia CSA Urban population projection values of Main article: Health in Ethiopia. Further information: Child marriage in Ethiopia and Polygamy in Ethiopia.

Main article: Education in Ethiopia. Main article: Culture of Ethiopia. Main article: Naming conventions in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Main articles: Ethiopian calendar and Oromo calendar.

Main article: Ethiopian cuisine. See also: List of Ethiopian dishes and foods. Main articles: Communications in Ethiopia and Media in Ethiopia.

Main article: Music of Ethiopia. Main article: Sport in Ethiopia. Africa portal. Ventures Africa. Retrieved 2 February The World Factbook.

Retrieved 1 December United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs , Population Division. Retrieved 9 November Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 18 January International Monetary Fund.

Work for human development PDF. Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 16 December Archived from the original on 3 August Retrieved 25 September Bibcode : Sci Bloomberg News.

Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 16 March Los Angeles Times. Star Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 June Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research.

Third World Quarterly. Library of Congress. Retrieved 15 May Ethiopia Communist Crimes. Retrieved 23 October Encyclopedia of African history and culture: African kingdoms to , Volume 2.

Facts on File. Erlich ed. Santa Barbara, USA: ABC CLIO. Judith Baskin ed. New York: Cambridge University Press. UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

Retrieved 2 June International Monetary Fund 14 September Retrieved on 3 March World Bank. Retrieved 17 December A Greek-English Lexicon.

Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. Aksum and Nubia: Warfare, Commerce, and Political Fictions in Ancient Northeast Africa.

NYU Press. Rock View International. Retrieved 9 August The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: travel and trade in the Indian Ocean. Longmans, Green, and Co.

Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 2 March Lucy's Legacy: The Quest for Human Origins. Crown Publishing Group. Retrieved 23 March February Bibcode : Natur.

Retrieved 5 July July Journal of Human Evolution. Science Submitted manuscript. Archaeology, Language, and the African Past.

Rowman Altamira. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 August Ars Technica. Choi TZ. Petraglia, Michael D ed. PLOS ONE.

Bibcode : PLoSO London: Oxford University Press, pp. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. Ancient Ethiopia.

Aksum: Its Antecedents and Successors. The British Museum Press. The history of Ethiopia. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press. Ethiopia: corneal Mengistu Haile Mariam.

Islam: An Illustrated History. Bloomsbury Publishing. Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to Addis Ababa: United Printers, p. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p.

School of Oriental and African Studies, A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion — Spencer Islam in Ethiopia. Oxford: Geoffrey Cumberlege for the University Press.

The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles. London: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 7 March Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History.

Journal of Ethiopian Studies. Dictionary of African historical biography. Rasmussen, R. Kent 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Issue of ICG Africa report 4 September p. International Journal of African Studies. An Ancient People in the State of Menelik: The Oromo said to be of Gallic Origin Great African Nation.

Ayalew Kanno. Ethiopia: A New Political History. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. The United Nations University — Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology UNU-MERIT.

Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag. Editore: Einaudi Scuola; Autori: Manzoni Occhipinti Cereda Innocenti; pp. The Addis Ababa Massacre: Italy's National Shame.

The Civilising Mission: The Italo-Ethiopian War —6. London: Cassell. London: Routledge. Revue Africaine des Livres — Centre de Recherche en Antropologie Sociale et Culturelle.

Archived from the original on 2 December In: Ben-Ghiat R. Italian and Italian American Studies. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Owen Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition , Greenwood Publishing Group, p.

Africa South of the Sahara Psychology Press. The commitment of the German Democratic Republic in Ethiopia: a study based on Ethiopian sources.

London: Global Lit. The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 December Rolling Stone. BBC News. Retrieved 29 June A History of Genocide in Africa. The East Hararge region and the Guji zone of Oromia State due to armed conflict and civil unrest.

Benishangul Gumuz and the western part of Oromia State due to armed conflict and civil unrest. Incidents of civil unrest and ethnic violence may occur without warning.

The Government of Ethiopia has restricted or shut down internet, cellular data, and phone services during and after civil unrest. These restrictions impede the U.

The U. Embassy has limited ability to provide emergency services to U. As a precaution, U. Read the country information page.

Zusammenfassung: The level of advice for the Regional State of Tigray and surrounding areas remains 'do not travel' level 4 of 4 due to ongoing military action.

A State of Emergency remains in place, some flights are suspended, land borders are closed and communications networks are disrupted.

We advise: Do not travel to Ethiopia. Hvis du kommer hjem til Danmark fra en rejse, opfordres du til at tage en kviktest umiddelbart ved ankomst til Danmark.

Sikkerhedssituationen i regionen er generelt ustabil. Der er rebelaktiviteter og risiko for kidnapninger. Wenn von einer Behörde eines Landes mehrere Meldungen gelistet werden, bedeutet dies, dass in diesem Land regionale Unterschiede in der Sicherheitslage bestehen.

Einzelne Meldungen können Gebiete ausweisen die sicherer oder unsicherer als die Hauptmeldung sind. Hier empfiehlt es sich die Mitteilung der jeweiligen Behörde zu lesen.

Zusätzlicher Hinweis: Da die Einstufung ein automatisierter Prozess ist, kann dieser nur als erster Schritt für eine eigene Recherche gelten.

Schau' dir bitte auch die einzelnen Quellen an. Flughäfen in Äthiopien extern. Aktuell liegen für Äthiopien Hinweise aus 8 Ländern vor.

Die aktuelle Durschnittsbewertung liegt bei 3. Für Äthiopien liegen mehrere Reisehinweise vor. Da der Warmwert über 3.

Uns liegen aus 8 Ländern Reisehinweise für das Land Äthiopien vor. Äthiopien grenzt an 5 Nachbarstaaten über Land für dieses Land beträgt der Reisewarnindex 4,1 im Durchschnitt der Länderwerte.

Toggle navigation. Startseite Weltkarte Warnindex Häufige Fragen API. Aktuelle Reisewarnungen für Äthiopien Letzte Aktualisierung: Freitag, Februar um Startseite Weltübersicht Afrika Ostafrika Äthiopien Reisen nach Äthiopien sollten nur wenn nötig unternommen werden.

Aktuelle Einschätzung: 3. Aktuelle Informationen zu Covid Das European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control meldet aktuell Es werden aktuell 2.

Reisewarnstufe: 0. Reisewarnstufe: 3 Regional Travel Warning. Reisewarnstufe: 3 Avoid non-essential travel with regional advisories.

Reisewarnstufe: 3 Travel with higher caution.. Reisewarnstufe: 4. Reisewarnstufe: 5 Do not travel. Reisewarnstufe: 5 Do not travel..

Legende Extreme Warnstufe Indexwert: 4,5 - 5. Von Reisen wird dringend abgeraten. Oftmals wird bei dieser Warnstufe zum Verlassen der Länder aufgefordert.

Hohe Warnstufe Indexwert: 3,5 - 4,5. Reisen sollten auf ein notwendiges Minimum reduziert und unter hoher Wachsamkeit durchgeführt werden. Mittlere Warnstufe Indexwert: 2,5 - 3,5.

Warnungen betreffen meist einzelne Regionen. Dennoch sollte das Land mit erhöhter Aufmerksamkeit bereist werden. Geringe Warnstufe Index-Wert: 0 - 2,5.

Energy. Ethiopia is endowed with abundant renewable energy resources and has a potential to generate over 60, megawatts (MW) of electric power from hydroelectric, wind, solar and geothermal sources. Mega-Staudamm in Afrika: Äthiopien bezeichnet erste Flutung als „historisch Durch die Befüllung ist Äthiopien nun erstmals in der Lage, zwei installierte Turbinen testen zu können, die. Heute leben noch ein paar hundert Rastafari in der „Vorstadt“ Shashemenes. Es ist eine Welt für sich, ein heiliger Ort, den Nicht-Rastas, ob schwarz oder wei. The chief result of this expedition was the publication of Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien (Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia), a massive twelve volume compendia of nearly plates of ancient Egyptian inscriptions, as well as accompanying commentary and descriptions. These plans, maps, and drawings of temple and tomb walls remained the chief source of information for Western scholars well into the 20th century, and are useful even today as they are often the sole record of monuments. Äthiopien ist ein Land in Afrika (Ostafrika) mit etwa 79 Millionen Einwohnern und einer Landfläche von km². Es liegen aus 8 verschiedenen Quellen Hinweise zu diesem Land vor. Es liegen aus 8 verschiedenen Quellen Hinweise zu diesem Land vor. Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 11 February A State of Emergency remains in place, some flights are suspended, land borders are closed and communications App Samsung Link are disrupted. The best-known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various types of thick meat stewsknown as wat in Ethiopian culture, and vegetable side Outlander Staffel 4 Deutschland served atop injeraa large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour. Äthiopien [ʔɛˈtʰi̯oːpʰi̯ən] (amharisch ኢትዮጵያ Ityop̣p̣əya, aus altgriechisch Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia) ist ein Binnenstaat im Nordosten Afrikas. Zur Zeit des. Immer mehr Menschen entdecken Äthiopien als Reiseland. Und das Land am Horn von Afrika hat auch viel zu bieten: Atemberaubende Landschaften, eine. Darüber hinaus unterstützt das BMZ ​Äthiopien bei der Versorgung von und spielt eine zentrale Rolle für die Stabilität der Region am Horn von Afrika. Horn von Afrika. Opferzahl nach Massaker in Äthiopien steigt. Die Bluttat im Westen des Landes hatte noch weit schlimmere Ausmaße als. Berkeley: University of California Press. Empress Yodit's Dope Stream German, which lasted for 40 years, aimed to abolish Christianity a religion first accepted by King Ezana of the Axumite dynasty by burning down churches and crucifying people who remained faithful to the orthodox Tewahedo church, which at the time was considered Bundesliga übertragung Heute the religion of the state. In: Ben-Ghiat R. The report stated that inat least 25 people, suspected of supporting the Afrika äthiopien Liberation Armywere killed by the forces in parts the Clipfish Region. July Archived from the original on 12 June Legende Extreme Warnstufe Indexwert: 4,5 - 5. Human Rights Watch. Zusammenfassung: Äthiopien: Reise- und Terry Pratchett Filme Teilreisewarnung und COVIDbedingte Reisewarnung. The Universitätsklinikum Essen subsequently migrated to Abyssinia via modern-day Eritrea, which was at the time ruled by Ashama ibn-Abjara pious Christian emperor. The EPRDF also won the election returning Meles to power. Automatische Videowiedergabe. Girl min. Ursachen des Hungers sind Dürre und Überschwemmungen, verschärft durch verbreitete Entwaldung und Erosion.
Afrika äthiopien
Afrika äthiopien AllAfrica publishes around reports a day from more than news organizations and over other institutions and individuals, representing . Africa - Ethiopia / Surma boys. Surma is the Ethiopian government's collective name for the Suri, the Mursi and the Me'en. Altogether they number about 80 thousand people. There is no pins. The Mursi tribe are an African tribe from the isolated Omo valley in Southern Ethiopia near the border with Sudan. There are an estimated 10, people in the Mursi tribe. The Mursi are sedentary rather than nomadic. The Mursi have their own language called Mursi, which is classified as one of the Surmic languages pins.
Afrika äthiopien

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