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He also viewed the play as suggesting that the healing force of love is connected to the acceptance of death, and vice versa.
In , Jan Lawson Hinely argued that this play has a therapeutic value. Shakespeare in many ways explores the sexual fears of the characters, releases them, and transforms them.
And the happy ending is the reestablishment of social harmony. Patriarchy itself is also challenged and transformed, as the men offer their women a loving equality, one founded on respect and trust.
She even viewed Titania's loving acceptance of the donkey-headed Bottom as a metaphor for basic trust. This trust is what enables the warring and uncertain lovers to achieve their sexual maturity.
In , Barbara Freedman argued that the play justifies the ideological formation of absolute monarchy , and makes visible for examination the maintenance process of hegemonic order.
During the years of the Puritan Interregnum when the theatres were closed — , the comic subplot of Bottom and his compatriots was performed as a droll.
Drolls were comical playlets, often adapted from the subplots of Shakespearean and other plays, that could be attached to the acts of acrobats and jugglers and other allowed performances, thus circumventing the ban against drama.
When the theatres re-opened in , A Midsummer Night's Dream was acted in adapted form, like many other Shakespearean plays.
Samuel Pepys saw it on 29 September and thought it " the most insipid, ridiculous play that ever I saw Richard Leveridge turned the Pyramus and Thisbe scenes into an Italian opera burlesque, acted at Lincoln's Inn Fields in John Frederick Lampe elaborated upon Leveridge's version in Charles Johnson had used the Pyramus and Thisbe material in the finale of Love in a Forest , his adaptation of As You Like It.
In , David Garrick did the opposite of what had been done a century earlier: he extracted Bottom and his companions and acted the rest, in an adaptation called The Fairies.
Frederic Reynolds produced an operatic version in In , Madame Vestris at Covent Garden returned the play to the stage with a relatively full text, adding musical sequences and balletic dances.
Vestris took the role of Oberon, and for the next seventy years, Oberon and Puck would always be played by women. After the success of Madame Vestris' production, 19th-century theatre continued to stage the Dream as a spectacle, often with a cast numbering nearly one hundred.
Detailed sets were created for the palace and the forest, and the fairies were portrayed as gossamer-winged ballerinas. The overture by Felix Mendelssohn was always used throughout this period.
Augustin Daly 's production opened in in London and ran for 21 performances. In Oscar Asche staged a production at the Adelphi Theatre in London with himself as Bottom and Beatrice Ferrar as Puck.
Max Reinhardt staged A Midsummer Night's Dream thirteen times between and ,  introducing a revolving set.
On the strength of this production, Warner Brothers signed Reinhardt to direct a filmed version , Hollywood's first Shakespeare movie since Douglas Fairbanks Sr.
Brown and Dick Powell. Korngold went on to make a legendary career in Hollywood, remaining in the United States after Nazi Germany annexed Austria.
Director Harley Granville-Barker introduced in a less spectacular way of staging the Dream : he reduced the size of the cast and used Elizabethan folk music instead of Mendelssohn.
He replaced large, complex sets with a simple system of patterned curtains. He portrayed the fairies as golden robotic insectoid creatures based on Cambodian idols.
His simpler, sparer staging significantly influenced subsequent productions. In , Peter Brook staged the play for the Royal Shakespeare Company in a blank white box, in which masculine fairies engaged in circus tricks such as trapeze artistry.
British actors who played various roles in Brook's production included Patrick Stewart , Ben Kingsley , John Kane Puck and Frances de la Tour Helena.
A Midsummer Night's Dream has been produced many times in New York, including several stagings by the New York Shakespeare Festival at the Delacorte Theatre in Central Park and a production by the Theatre for a New Audience , produced by Joseph Papp at the Public Theater.
In , the Riverside Shakespeare Company staged an outdoor production starring Eric Hoffmann as Puck, with Karen Hurley as Titania and Eric Conger as Oberon, directed by company founder Gloria Skurski.
There have been several variations since then, including some set in the s. The Maryland Shakespeare Players at University of Maryland staged a queer production in where the lovers were same-sex couples and the mechanicals were drag queens.
The University of Michigan 's Nichols Arboretum 's programme Shakespeare in the Arb has presented a play every summer since Shakespeare in the Arb has produced A Midsummer Night's Dream three times.
The performance takes place in several places, with actors and audience moving together to each setting. Artistic director Emma Rice 's first production at Shakespeare's Globe in was a version of the play.
While not "a production to please the purists", it received praise. A contemporary reworking, it included gender switched characters and Bollywood influences.
Ken Ludwig 's comic play, Shakespeare in Hollywood , is set during the production of the film. Oberon and Puck appear on the scene and find themselves cast as—themselves.
Stanley Moss used the quotation "Ill met by moonlight" as the title of his Ill Met by Moonlight , a non-fiction book about the kidnap of General Kreipe during WWII.
Neil Gaiman 's comic series The Sandman uses the play in the issue A Midsummer Night's Dream. In this story, Shakespeare and his company perform the play for the real Oberon and Titania and an audience of fairies.
The play is heavily quoted in the comic, and Shakespeare's son Hamnet appears in the play as the Indian boy. This issue was the first and only comic to win the World Fantasy Award for Best Short Fiction , in Terry Pratchett 's book Lords and Ladies is a parody of the play.
Bernard Cornwell 's novel Fools and Mortals is about the creation and first performance of the play, as seen by the young actor, Richard Shakespeare, brother of the playwright.
The Fairy-Queen is an opera from by Henry Purcell , based on the play. In , Felix Mendelssohn composed a concert overture , inspired by the play, that was first performed in In , partly because of the fame of the overture, and partly because his employer King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia liked the incidental music that Mendelssohn had written for other plays that had been staged at the palace in German translation, Mendelssohn was commissioned to write incidental music for a production of A Midsummer Night's Dream that was to be staged in in Potsdam.
He incorporated the existing Overture into the incidental music, which was used in most stage versions through the 19th century.
The best known of the pieces from the incidental music is the famous Wedding March , frequently used as a recessional in weddings. The choreographer Marius Petipa , more famous for his collaborations with Tchaikovsky on the ballets Swan Lake and The Sleeping Beauty made another ballet adaptation for the Imperial Ballet of St.
The revival premiered 14 July English choreographer Frederick Ashton also created a minute ballet version of the play, retitled to The Dream.
George Balanchine was another to create a Midsummer Night's Dream ballet based on the play, using Mendelssohn's music.
Between and Carl Orff also wrote incidental music for a German version of the play, Ein Sommernachtstraum performed in Since Mendelssohn's parents were Jews who converted to Lutheranism, his music had been banned by the Nazi regime, and the Nazi cultural officials put out a call for new music for the play: Orff was one of the musicians who responded.
He later reworked the music for a final version, completed in He wrote the pieces for a cappella SATB choir in for the British Federation of Music Festivals, and they remain a popular part of British choral repertoire today.
The play was adapted into an opera , with music by Benjamin Britten and libretto by Britten and Peter Pears.
The opera was first performed on 11 June at Aldeburgh. The theatre company, Moonwork put on a production of Midsummer in It was conceived by Mason Pettit, Gregory Sherman and Gregory Wolfe who directed it.
The music for the rest of the show was written by Andrew Sherman. The Donkey Show is a disco-era experience based on A Midsummer Night's Dream , that first appeared off Broadway in In a three-act opera by Delannoy entitled Puck was premiered in Strasbourg.
Progressive Rock guitarist Steve Hackett , best known for his work with Genesis , made a classical adaptation of the play in Hans Werner Henze 's Eighth Symphony is inspired by sequences from the play.
The Alexander W. In , Opera Memphis , Playhouse on the Square , and contemporary a cappella groups DeltaCappella and Riva, premiered Michael Ching 's A Midsummer Night's Dream: Opera A Cappella.
A Midsummer Night's Dream has been adapted as a film many times. The following are the best known. In , British astronomer William Herschel discovered two new moons of Uranus.
In his son John Herschel named them after characters in the play: Oberon , and Titania. Another Uranian moon, discovered in by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, has been named Puck.
The National Institute of Dramatic Art NIDA hosted their Prom in the theme of A Midsummer Night's Dream. Titania and Bottom by Johann Heinrich Füssli — Titania and Bottom by John Anster Fitzgerald.
Joseph Noel Paton : The Reconciliation of Titania and Oberon. Henry Meynell Rheam : Titania welcoming her fairy brethren. La Folie de Titania , by Paul Gervais , A Midsummer Night's Dream by John Simmons , All references to A Midsummer Night's Dream , unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare 2nd series edition.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Play by William Shakespeare. This article is about Shakespeare's play. For other uses, see A Midsummer Night's Dream disambiguation.
Theseus — Duke of Athens Hippolyta —Queen of the Amazons Egeus —father of Hermia Hermia —daughter of Egeus, in love with Lysander Lysander —in love with Hermia Demetrius —suitor to Hermia, former lover of Helena Helena —in love with Demetrius Philostrate — Master of the Revels Peter Quince —a carpenter Nick Bottom —a weaver Francis Flute —a bellows -mender Tom Snout —a tinker Snug —a joiner Robin Starveling —a tailor Oberon —King of the Fairies Titania —Queen of the Fairies Robin "Puck" Goodfellow —a mischievous sprite with magical powers Peaseblossom, Cobweb, Moth and Mustardseed—fairy servants to Titania Indian changeling—a ward of Titania.
Main article: A Midsummer Night's Dream Mendelssohn. Puck by Joshua Reynolds , The Marriage of Oberon and Titania by John Anster Fitzgerald.
Thomas Stothard — Oberon and Titania from A Midsummer Night's Dream , Act IV, Scene I. Retrieved 12 April Footlight Notes. The Observer. Retrieved 14 April Evening Standard.
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Enjoy a three-course dinner before going on a guided hike to the top of Mount Nuolja, where you can take in sweeping views of the arctic landscape.
When to go: Experience the midnight sun in Sweden between late May and July. Where to stay: Book a room at Abisko Guesthouse in town or Abisko Turists tation near Abiskoational Park.
Head to Svalbard Bryggeri , a craft brewery on the Longyearbyen waterfront, to sip on a cold beer while enjoying ocean views. Book a wildlife watching cruise online before you go, and keep an eye out for whales and walrus , which are more common during the summer months.
The summer months bring lingering sunny days across northern Canada. Whitehorse is a great base for setting out on a road trip north up the mile Klondike Highway to gold rush-era Dawson City; the highway roughly follows the route taken by prospectors during the Gold Rush.
When to go: Visitors will experience longer days between late May and early July, but it never gets darker than dusk from June 15 to Further north in Lapland, near towns like Rovaniemi and Sodankylä, you can celebrate the Finnish way : with bonfires, dancing, a late-night sauna, and polar plunge.
Plan your trip around the Midnight Sun Film Festival in Sodankylä, which takes place from June 12 to 16 this year. Where to stay: Stay at design-forward Klaus K Hotel or book a room in Hotel Lilla Roberts , which is housed in an elegant historic building.
Book a glacier and whale watching tour , try your hand at dog-sledding , or watch the perpetual sunset illuminate the colorful houses of the Myggedalen neighborhood in a golden glow.
Head to the end of Isaajap Aqqutaa road in Myggedalen for the picture-perfect view. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Natural phenomenon when daylight lasts for , occurring only inside or close to the polar circles.
For other uses, see Midnight sun disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Play media. Main article: White Night festivals. Earth Phenomena Planetary Science".
Retrieved Haugan, ed. Parts of a day. Dawn — Twilight — Sunrise Morning Daytime Evening Sunset — Twilight — Dusk Night.
Related: Belt of Venus Blue hour Golden hour Terminator Daylight Moonlight Noon Afternoon Midnight Midnight sun Polar night Zodiacal light.
Categories : Earth phenomena Geography of the Arctic Sun. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references Commons category link is on Wikidata.
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